1. Articles in category: Parsing

    529-552 of 586 « 1 2 ... 20 21 22 23 24 25 »
    1. Method and apparatus for processing free-format data

      A method and apparatus for processing free-format data (301) to produce a "text object" associated with the free-format data. The text object comprises a plurality of "component nodes" (302-312) containing attribute-type identifiers for elements of the free-format text and other data facilitating access to the text object to obtain information and/or change or add the free-format data. This arrangement obviates the need for the provision of separate database fields for each element of the information. Free-format data can therefore be processed in a similar manner to the way a human being processes free-format data. All elements can be accessed ...
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    2. Method and apparatus for generating deterministic approximate weighted finite-state automata

      An approximate weighted finite-state automaton can be constructed in place of a weighted finite-state automaton so long as the approximate weighted finite-state automaton maintains a sufficient portion of the original best strings in the weighted finite-state automaton and sufficiently few spurious strings are introduced into the approximate weighted finite-state automaton compared to the weighted finite-state automaton. An approximate weighted finite-state automaton can be created from a non-deterministic weighted finite-state automaton during determinization by discarding the requirement that old states be used in place of new states only when an old state is identical to a new state. Instead, in an ...
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    3. Method and apparatus for providing syntactic analysis and data structure for translation knowledge in example-based language translation

      Syntactic analysis is performed on an input and on entries of a bilingual example database using at least one parse tree. The parse trees, formed using a context-free grammar, comprise a number of nodes and each node comprises at least one production rule. Furthermore, at least one node comprises nested production rules. The nested production rules comprise production rules for different combinations of the linguistic constituents of the input. The syntactic analysis comprises recognizing linguistic constituents, ordering the linguistic constituents, representing the linguistic constituents using an adapted feature structure analysis representation, and manipulating the adapted feature structure analysis representation using ...
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      Mentions: Japan Inventiona
    4. Method and apparatus for parsing in a spoken language translation system

      A method and apparatus for parsing in a spoken language translation system are provided, wherein an input is received comprising at least one input sentence or expression. A parsing table is accessed and consulted for a next action, wherein the parser looks up in the next action in the parsing table. During parsing operations, the parser may perform shift actions and reduce actions. In performing a shift action, a next item of the input string is shifted onto a stack or intermediate data structure of the parser. A new parse node is generated, and a feature structure or lexical feature ...
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      Mentions: Japan Inventiona
    5. System and method for language extraction and encoding utilizing the parsing of text data in accordance with domain parameters

      A computerized method for extracting information from natural-language text data includes parsing the text data to determine the grammatical structure of the text data and regularizing the parsed text data to form structured word terms. The parsing step, which can be performed in one or more parsing modes, includes the step of referring to a domain parameter having a value indicative of a domain from which the text data originated, wherein the domain parameter corresponds to one or more rules of grammar within a knowledge base related to the domain to be applied for parsing the text data. Preferably, the ...
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    6. Command parsing and rewrite system

      A system and method of allowing a user to control a computer application with spoken commands, include the steps of processing the spoken commands with a Speech Recognition application into candidate word phrases, and parsing at least one candidate word phrase with a Context Free Grammar (CFG) parser, into a parse tree. A plurality of predefined rewrite rules grouped into a plurality of phases applied are to the parse tree, for rewriting the parse tree. Each of the plurality of rewrite rules includes a pattern matching portion, for matching at least a part of the parse tree, and a rewrite ...
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    7. Automatic essay scoring system using content-based techniques

      A system for carrying out a content-based process for automatically scoring essays is disclosed. The system includes a computer; a data storage device; a parse tree file stored in the data storage device, the parse tree file being representative of an essay in a parse tree format; a morphology stripping program; a concept extraction program for creating, on the basis of a morphology-stripped parse tree file, a phrasal node file; and a rule matching scoring program for scoring the essay on the basis of the phrasal node file.
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      Mentions: Software
    8. Method and system for natural language parsing using chunking

      A method and system that uses a chunking technique to guide the parsing. A chunk is a portion of the input for which the system has determined that a sufficient number of syntax rules have been applied such that further application of syntax rules to that chunk is unlikely to produce a more accurate sub-parse for that chunk. When using the chunking technique, the system selects a syntax rule to apply to the current partial parse (sub-trees) of the input sentence. The selected syntax rule has a high probability relative to other syntax rules that can be applied to the ...
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      Mentions: Inventiona
    9. System and method for medical language extraction and encoding

      In computerized processing of natural-language medical/clinical data including phrase parsing and regularizing, parameters are referred to whose value can be specified by the user. Thus, a computerized system can be provided with versatility, for the processing of data originating in diverse domains, for example. Further to a parser and a regularizer, the system includes a preprocessor, output filters, and an encoding mechanism.
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    10. Method and system for identifying and resolving commonly confused words in a natural language parser

      A method and system for identifying and resolving commonly confused words in a natural language parser is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a computer system parses input text made up of two or more words using a relation that maps from potentially confused words, including one word among the words of the input text, to possibly intended words. The computer system first identifies the possible parts of speech for each word of the input text including the potentially confused word. The computer system then identifies the possible parts of speech for the possibly intended word to which the relation maps ...
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      Mentions: Seattle Inventiona
    11. Identifying information related to an input word in an electronic dictionary

      A method and system for retrieving information from an electronic dictionary. The system stores all information about words that have the same normalized form into a single entry within the electronic dictionary. The normalized form of a word has all lower case letters and no diacritical marks. When information is to be retrieved from the dictionary for a word, the word is first normalized and then the dictionary is searched for the entry corresponding to that normalized word. The entry that is found contains the information for that word.
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      Mentions: Poland
    12. Use of re-entrant subparsing to facilitate processing of complicated input data

      A parser includes a plurality of entry points, an allocater, and a reinvoker. The plurality of entry points each invoke a respective portion of the parser to attempt to interpret a stream of tokens corresponding to a statement in a respectively different way. An allocater defines a local state for each invocation of each respective portion of the parser. A reinvoker enters more than one of the entry points to attempt to interpret the stream of tokens.
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    13. Method and system for computing semantic logical forms from syntax trees

      Methods and computer systems for semantically analyzing natural language sentences. The natural language processing subsystems for morphological and syntactic analysis transform an input sentence into a syntax parse tree. Semantic analysis applies three sets of semantic rules to create a skeletal logical form graph from a syntax parse tree. Semantic analysis then applies two additional sets of semantic rules to provide semantically meaningful labels for the links of the logical form graph, to create additional logical form graph nodes for missing elements, and to unify redundant elements. The final logical form graph represents the complete semantic analysis of an input ...
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    14. Using speculative parsing to process complex input data

      A parser includes a plurality of subparsers, a main parser unit, and a selector. Each of the subparsers attempts to interpret a stream of tokens corresponding to a statement in a respectively different way. In addition, each subparser returns a speculative result and a respective confidence level. The main parser unit receives the stream of tokens, identifies that the stream of tokens make up a statement and invokes at least a few of the subparsers. The selector selects one speculative result based upon the confidence level returned by the subparsers which are invoked by the main parser unit.
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    15. Method and system for bootstrapping statistical processing into a rule-based natural language parser

      A method and system for bootstrapping statistical processing into a rule-based natural language parser is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a statistical bootstrapping software facility optimizes the operation of a robust natural language parser that uses a set of lexicon entries to determine possible parts of speech of words from an input string and a set of rules to combine words from the input string into syntactic structures. The facility first operates the parser in a statistics compilation mode, in which, for each of many sample input strings, the parser attempts to apply all applicable rules and lexicon entries. While ...
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    16. Method to quantify abstraction within semantic networks

      A computer implemented conversational method to parse meaning from input sequences of symbols, using a large dictionary stored in a semantic network, where thousands of dictionary entries for symbols are stored as nodes connected by inheritance links. Input symbols are matched to dictionary entries, with priority given to entries which cover a range of concreteness similar to the range covered by the dictionary. Ranges of concreteness which are missing are identified and reported back to the user. Concreteness of each entry is quantified from topology of inheritance links; quantification is done automatically when defining meanings by inheritance. As network topology ...
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    17. Method and apparatus for creating speech recognition grammars constrained by counter examples

      An automated system generates and revises grammars for speech recognizers in a speech recognition system. Given an initial grammar, expressed in terms of non-terminals in Backus-Naur Form (BNF) notation, a sentence generator generates a list of all sentences accepted by the grammar. From this list, a corpus of inappropriate or irrelevant sentences which are accepted by the grammar (counter-examples) is identified. A grammar revisor program uses the original grammar and the list of counter examples, to generate a pruned list from which a revised grammar is generated. The revision process is iterated several times either concatenating or merging pairs of ...
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    18. Method and system for natural language parsing using podding

      A method and system for determining the likelihood that a certain syntax rule when applied to a partial parse of an input will produce a node that will be part of the correct parse for the input. Each syntax rule indicates a higher-level syntactic construct that can be formed from one or more lower-level syntactic constructs. Each syntax rule has a probability which indicates the likelihood that the syntax rule will succeed and produce a node in the resulting parse tree. Each syntax rule also has a heuristic score formula indicating how to calculate a heuristically derived score for the ...
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      Mentions: Inventiona
    19. Method and apparatus for universal parsing of language

      A method and apparatus for natural language parsing are described. The invention includes the steps of retrieving an input string, and performing a dictionary look-up for each word in the input string to form a correspondence between each word and a dictionary entry. The dictionary entry provides lexical features of the word. The invention includes the additional step of processing the words in the input string beginning with a last word in the input string and continuing toward the first word in the input string. This step includes the step of associating a selected word in the input string with ...
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    20. Natural language parser with dictionary-based part-of-speech probabilities

      A natural language parser determines part-of-speech probabilities by using a dictionary or other lexicon as a source for the part-of-speech probabilities. A machine-readable dictionary is scanned, word-by-word. For each word, the number of senses listed for the word and associated with a part of speech are counted. A part-of-speech probability is then computed for each part of speech based upon the number of senses counted. The part-of-speech probability is indicative of how likely the word is to assume a particular part of speech in a text. The most probable parts of speech are then used by a parser during the ...
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    21. Method for learning local syntactic relationships for use in example-based information-extraction-pattern learning

      A method is provided for learning local syntactic relationships for use in an example-based information-extraction-pattern learning element of an automated information extraction system. The example-based learning element learns information extraction patterns from user-provided examples of texts paired with events the texts contain; these patterns can then be used by the information extraction system to recognize similar events in subsequent texts. The learning element learns patterns by analyzing each example text/event pair to determine paths of local syntactic relationships between constituents in the text that indicate the event. The learning element employs an incomplete dictionary of local syntactic relationships for ...
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    22. Application user interface

      In a computer system, a user interacts with a plurality of applications using natural language text provided by an input device. In order to enable the applications for user interaction, rules are registered on a blackboard of an arbiter. The arbiter can be localized, or distributed. Each rule is identified with a particular application, and can include a callback procedure. Each rule includes a left-hand side symbol and a right-hand side string which is a translation of the symbol. A parser parses a natural language input text string using the register rules to generate an evaluation tree. The evaluation tree ...
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    23. Apparatus and method for syntactic signal analysis

      An apparatus and method for syntactic signal analysis which is suitable for processing signals which deviate, within a freely selected margin, from a set of signals predetermined by a grammar, the apparatus being provided with a feature unification mechanism which detects violations of features, and an adaptive threshold mechanism coupled thereto. The feature unification mechanism, which processes the features in groups so that rapid processing is obtained, determines a violation score, thus providing a measure of the deviation of the analyzed signal from the set of signals predetermined by the grammar and indicates what elements of the signal are not ...
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    24. Character recognition method and apparatus

      A character recognition method is arranged to supplement an erroneously recognized character with a linguistic knowledge. In this method, the extraction of a candidate based on the search of a word dictionary occupies a large part of the operation. To speed up the extraction of a candidate word, therefore, the method is provided to search the dictionary by using a group of candidate characters or a dictionary header for processing an inflected form of a verb. Further, the present method is provided for calculating a word matching cost for improving an efficiency of modifying an erroneous recognition. The word search ...
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