1. Articles in category: Parsing

    553-576 of 598 « 1 2 ... 21 22 23 24 25 »
    1. Method and system for computing semantic logical forms from syntax trees

      Methods and computer systems for semantically analyzing natural language sentences. The natural language processing subsystems for morphological and syntactic analysis transform an input sentence into a syntax parse tree. Semantic analysis applies three sets of semantic rules to create a skeletal logical form graph from a syntax parse tree. Semantic analysis then applies two additional sets of semantic rules to provide semantically meaningful labels for the links of the logical form graph, to create additional logical form graph nodes for missing elements, and to unify redundant elements. The final logical form graph represents the complete semantic analysis of an input ...
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    2. Using speculative parsing to process complex input data

      A parser includes a plurality of subparsers, a main parser unit, and a selector. Each of the subparsers attempts to interpret a stream of tokens corresponding to a statement in a respectively different way. In addition, each subparser returns a speculative result and a respective confidence level. The main parser unit receives the stream of tokens, identifies that the stream of tokens make up a statement and invokes at least a few of the subparsers. The selector selects one speculative result based upon the confidence level returned by the subparsers which are invoked by the main parser unit.
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    3. Method and system for bootstrapping statistical processing into a rule-based natural language parser

      A method and system for bootstrapping statistical processing into a rule-based natural language parser is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a statistical bootstrapping software facility optimizes the operation of a robust natural language parser that uses a set of lexicon entries to determine possible parts of speech of words from an input string and a set of rules to combine words from the input string into syntactic structures. The facility first operates the parser in a statistics compilation mode, in which, for each of many sample input strings, the parser attempts to apply all applicable rules and lexicon entries. While ...
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    4. Method to quantify abstraction within semantic networks

      A computer implemented conversational method to parse meaning from input sequences of symbols, using a large dictionary stored in a semantic network, where thousands of dictionary entries for symbols are stored as nodes connected by inheritance links. Input symbols are matched to dictionary entries, with priority given to entries which cover a range of concreteness similar to the range covered by the dictionary. Ranges of concreteness which are missing are identified and reported back to the user. Concreteness of each entry is quantified from topology of inheritance links; quantification is done automatically when defining meanings by inheritance. As network topology ...
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    5. Method and apparatus for creating speech recognition grammars constrained by counter examples

      An automated system generates and revises grammars for speech recognizers in a speech recognition system. Given an initial grammar, expressed in terms of non-terminals in Backus-Naur Form (BNF) notation, a sentence generator generates a list of all sentences accepted by the grammar. From this list, a corpus of inappropriate or irrelevant sentences which are accepted by the grammar (counter-examples) is identified. A grammar revisor program uses the original grammar and the list of counter examples, to generate a pruned list from which a revised grammar is generated. The revision process is iterated several times either concatenating or merging pairs of ...
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    6. Method and system for natural language parsing using podding

      A method and system for determining the likelihood that a certain syntax rule when applied to a partial parse of an input will produce a node that will be part of the correct parse for the input. Each syntax rule indicates a higher-level syntactic construct that can be formed from one or more lower-level syntactic constructs. Each syntax rule has a probability which indicates the likelihood that the syntax rule will succeed and produce a node in the resulting parse tree. Each syntax rule also has a heuristic score formula indicating how to calculate a heuristically derived score for the ...
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      Mentions: Inventiona
    7. Method and apparatus for universal parsing of language

      A method and apparatus for natural language parsing are described. The invention includes the steps of retrieving an input string, and performing a dictionary look-up for each word in the input string to form a correspondence between each word and a dictionary entry. The dictionary entry provides lexical features of the word. The invention includes the additional step of processing the words in the input string beginning with a last word in the input string and continuing toward the first word in the input string. This step includes the step of associating a selected word in the input string with ...
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    8. Natural language parser with dictionary-based part-of-speech probabilities

      A natural language parser determines part-of-speech probabilities by using a dictionary or other lexicon as a source for the part-of-speech probabilities. A machine-readable dictionary is scanned, word-by-word. For each word, the number of senses listed for the word and associated with a part of speech are counted. A part-of-speech probability is then computed for each part of speech based upon the number of senses counted. The part-of-speech probability is indicative of how likely the word is to assume a particular part of speech in a text. The most probable parts of speech are then used by a parser during the ...
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    9. Method for learning local syntactic relationships for use in example-based information-extraction-pattern learning

      A method is provided for learning local syntactic relationships for use in an example-based information-extraction-pattern learning element of an automated information extraction system. The example-based learning element learns information extraction patterns from user-provided examples of texts paired with events the texts contain; these patterns can then be used by the information extraction system to recognize similar events in subsequent texts. The learning element learns patterns by analyzing each example text/event pair to determine paths of local syntactic relationships between constituents in the text that indicate the event. The learning element employs an incomplete dictionary of local syntactic relationships for ...
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    10. Application user interface

      In a computer system, a user interacts with a plurality of applications using natural language text provided by an input device. In order to enable the applications for user interaction, rules are registered on a blackboard of an arbiter. The arbiter can be localized, or distributed. Each rule is identified with a particular application, and can include a callback procedure. Each rule includes a left-hand side symbol and a right-hand side string which is a translation of the symbol. A parser parses a natural language input text string using the register rules to generate an evaluation tree. The evaluation tree ...
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    11. Apparatus and method for syntactic signal analysis

      An apparatus and method for syntactic signal analysis which is suitable for processing signals which deviate, within a freely selected margin, from a set of signals predetermined by a grammar, the apparatus being provided with a feature unification mechanism which detects violations of features, and an adaptive threshold mechanism coupled thereto. The feature unification mechanism, which processes the features in groups so that rapid processing is obtained, determines a violation score, thus providing a measure of the deviation of the analyzed signal from the set of signals predetermined by the grammar and indicates what elements of the signal are not ...
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    12. Character recognition method and apparatus

      A character recognition method is arranged to supplement an erroneously recognized character with a linguistic knowledge. In this method, the extraction of a candidate based on the search of a word dictionary occupies a large part of the operation. To speed up the extraction of a candidate word, therefore, the method is provided to search the dictionary by using a group of candidate characters or a dictionary header for processing an inflected form of a verb. Further, the present method is provided for calculating a word matching cost for improving an efficiency of modifying an erroneous recognition. The word search ...
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    13. Parsing method and system for natural language processing

      The present invention provides a method and system to improve the accuracy of natural language processing systems by enabling them to acquire a parsing output that is accurate to a degree for any type of sentence. The feature of the present invention is that a sentence (a non-grammatical, ill-formed sentence) that cannot be parsed when using a conventional parsing process, which relies on grammatical knowledge, is re-analyzed by using the parsing results for an identical word row in a sentence (a well-formed sentence) in the same context that could be parsed. More specifically, the processing below is performed: (1) a ...
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    14. Method and system for English text analysis

      A computer-implemented method and system are provided for English text analysis. A file of a plurality of English sentences is received and submitted to a parser. A unified parse structure is generated by the parser for predefined ones of the English sentences. A plurality of predetermined critiquing rules are applied to each of the unified parse structures for identifying exceptions to recommended English. Identified exceptions together with related information are stored in an exception file. Then an interactive session with a user is performed utilizing the stored exception file.
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    15. Method of parsing unification based grammars using disjunctive lazy copy links

      A method of unifying feature structures using disjunctive lazy copy links. The method begins with unification of two daughter feature structures to generate their mother feature structure. Lazy copy links point from the mother feature structure back to her daughter feature structures. If unification activates any of these lazy copy links, then a selected one of the two daughter feature structures is expanded. Expansion of a disjunctive feature structure may generate a number of alternative feature structures. If so, the alternative feature structures are examined to determine if their number can be reduced by replacing multiple feature structures with one ...
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    16. Method and device for parsing and analyzing natural language sentences and text

      A program is provided for organizing a natural language, such as English, into binary units of two basic elements, Nounness and Verbness, which combine in two idea word patterns, called Primary Image and Conditional Image, and two Detail word patterns, called Process Detail and Background Detail. These two basic elements, Nounness and Verbness, function binarily within the program, either in combination for the two Image word patterns or separately for the two Detail word patterns. All word terns, except the verb-in-tense in the two Image word patterns, function binarily within the program in one of two positions: as Nounness, called ...
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    17. Large vocabulary connected speech recognition system and method of language representation using evolutional grammer to represent context free grammars

      A method of recognizing speech input selectively creates and maintains grammar representations of the speech input in essentially real time. Speech input frames are received by a speech recognition system. Grammar representations are created for each speech frame and a probability score is derived for the representations indicating the probability of the accuracy of the representations to the speech input. Representations having a probability score below a predetermined threshold are not maintained. Those grammar representations having probability scores above the predetermined threshold are maintained. As more speech frames are received by the system, additional grammar representations are created and the ...
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    18. Large vocabulary connected speech recognition system and method of language representation using evolutional grammar to represent context free grammars

      A method of recognizing speech input selectively creates and maintains grammar representations of the speech input in essentially real time. Speech input frames received by a speech recognition system. Grammar representations are created for each speech frame and a probability score is derived for the representations indicating the probability of the accuracy of the representations to the speech input. Representations having a probability score below a predetermined threshold are not maintained. Those grammar representations having probability scores above predetermined threshold are maintained. As more speech frames are received by the system, additional grammar representations are created and the probability scores ...
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    19. Machine translation system utilizing bilingual equivalence statements

      A machine translation system which operates by analyzing a source text to deduce information about the usage and meaning of the words of a source language text as they occur in context. This information is passed to an equivalencing module, which determines a set of equivalent target language words from which may be constructed a target language text by a generation module. The generation module has internal structure, including a tree construction module and a constraint checking module. The two modules operate in parallel. The tree constructor builds legal target language structures from which the translated text may be extracted ...
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    20. Parsing system

      A subject-of-analysis input section inputs an input sentence or phrase to be analyzed. A dictionary unit holds dictionary data for dictionary consultation for a language of the input sentence. A morphemic analyzer consults the dictionary for the input sentence and recognizes breaks between every input word. A grammatical rule unit holds grammatical rules for parsing in the form of a general context-free grammar. A parsing unit applies the grammatical rules to the input sentence for parsing of the sentence. An analysis table unit stores the analysis intermediate results by the parsing unit in predetermined storage locations and holds an analysis ...
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    21. System for recognizing sentence patterns and a system recognizing sentence patterns and grammatical cases

      A slot table contains (1) all possible sentence patterns (VPs), arranged in rows, which a predicate in an input sentence can take, and (2) arguments of the VPs expressed as slot conditions in slots positioned in a finite number of positions. A grammatical case pattern table contains columns corresponding to respective grammatical cases of the basic patterns arranged in the order in which the cases appear in a basic pattern before shifting; all the grammatical case patterns are expressed as binary values representing existing/non-existing ones of the respective grammatical cases in respective rows corresponding to the grammatical case patterns ...
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    22. Robust language processor for segmenting and parsing-language containing multiple instructions

      Apparatus and method are provided for segmenting, parsing, interpreting and formatting the content of instructions such as air traffic control instructions. Output from a speech recognizer is so processed to produce such instructions in a structured format such as for input to other software. There are two main components: an instruction segmenter and a robust parser. In the instruction segmenter, the recognized text produced by the speech recognizer is segmented into independent instructions and each instruction is processed. The instruction segmenter receives a recognized air traffic control or other instruction, and segments it into individual commands. Utterances or other language ...
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    23. Archiving and retrieving multimedia objects using structured indexes

      To archive information, a phrase or sentence describing the information, typically expressed in a natural language and conforming to the rules of a grammar (like a natural language grammar) is used to create a structured index which also conforms to the natural language grammar. The structured index has structure because the words in the index have a function and a relationship among each other as determined by the grammar. The index is combined with a location pointer of information to be cataloged, preferably multimedia information, to form a matched pair, i.e., a structured index and a segment (or a ...
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    24. Associative memory processing method for natural language parsing and pattern recognition

      An associative memory processor architecture is disclosed for the fast and efficient execution of parsing algorithms for natural language processing and pattern recognition applications. The architecture consists of an associative memory unit for the storage of parsing state representations, a random access memory unit for the storage of the grammatical rules and other tables according to which the parsing is done, a finite state parsing control unit which embodies the chosen parsing algorithm, and a communications unit for communication with a host processor or external interface. The use of associative memory for the storage of parsing state representations allows the ...
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    553-576 of 598 « 1 2 ... 21 22 23 24 25 »
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