1. Articles in category: Semantic

    4033-4058 of 4058 « 1 2 ... 166 167 168 169
    1. Probabilistic system for natural language processing

      A natural language understanding system is described to provide generation of concept codes from free-text medical data. A probabilistic model of lexical semantics, is implemented by means of a Bayesian network, and is used to determine the most probable concept or meaning associated with a sentence or phrase. The inventive method and system includes the steps of checking for synonyms, checking spelling, performing syntactic parsing, transforming text to its "deep" or semantic form, and performing a semantic analysis based on a probabilistic model of lexical semantics.
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    2. Meaning-based information organization and retrieval

      The present invention relies on the idea of a meaning-based search, allowing users to locate information that is close in meaning to the concepts they are searching. A semantic space is created by a lexicon of concepts and relations between concepts. A query is mapped to a first meaning differentiator, representing the location of the query in the semantic space. Similarly, each data element in the target data set being searched is mapped to a second meaning differentiator, representing the location of the data element in the semantic space. Searching is accomplished by determining a semantic distance between the first ...
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    3. Type-based selection of rules for semantically disambiguating words

      In semantically disambiguating words, where more than one disambiguation applies to the context in which a word occurs, a rule can be selected based on the type of information from which it was obtained. The rules can be derived from different types of information in a corpus such as a dictionary, and rules can be selected in accordance with a prioritization of the types of information.
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    4. Methods for analysis and evaluation of the semantic content of a writing based on vector length

      The present invention is a methodology for analyzing and evaluating a sample text, such as essay(s), or document(s). This methodology compares sample text to a reference essay(s), document(s), or text segment(s) within a reference essay or document. The methodology analyzes the amount of subject-matter information in the sample text, analyzes the relevance of subject matter information in the sample and evaluates the semantic coherence of the sample. This methodology presumes there is an underlying, latent semantic structure in the usage of words. The method parses and stores text objects and text segments from the sample ...
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    5. Method and system for providing information in response to questions

      An apparatus and a system to teach a user a subject based on his questions. The system allows the user to control his learning process, and helps to fill in gaps of misunderstanding in the subject. In one embodiment, the system, including a database, presents study materials on the subject to the user. After working on the presented materials, the user enters his question into the system, which generates an answer to the question, and presents it to him. Then the system compares the question with one or more questions previously entered by the user to determine his understanding level ...
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    6. Probabilistic method for natural language processing and for encoding free-text data into a medical database by utilizing a Bayesian network to perform spell checking of words

      A natural language understanding system is described which provides for the generation of concept codes from free-text medical data. A probabilistic model of lexical semantics, in the preferred embodiment of the invention implemented by means of a Bayesian network, is used to determine the most probable concept or meaning associated with a sentence or phrase. The inventive method and system includes the steps of checking for synonyms, checking spelling, performing syntactic parsing, transforming text to its "deep" or semantic form, and performing a semantic analysis based on a probabilistic model of lexical semantics. In the preferred embodiment of the invention ...
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    7. Method of and system for disambiguating syntactic word multiples

      A method and system are provided for disambiguating multiples of syntactically related words automatically using the notion of semantic similarity between words. Based on syntactically related words derived from a sample text, a set is formed containing each associating word and the words associated in the syntactic relationship with it. The associating words are expanded to all word senses. Pair wise intersections of the resulting sets are formed so as to form pairs of semantically compatible word clusters which may be stored as pairs of cooccurrence restriction codes.
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    8. Method, apparatus, and computer readable medium for performing semantic analysis and generating a semantic structure having linked frames

      A method for performing a semantic analysis process on a computer system including a storage unit and an interface includes the steps of: receiving a syntactic tree generated from a natural language sentence text; determining whether an analysis object, which is one of nodes of the syntactic tree, is a verb phrase class which has a verb as a head or a non-verb phrase class which has mainly a noun as the head on the basis of subdivided type information of a phrase of the node with reference to first data stored in the storage unit; analyzing a relation between ...
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      Mentions: Tokyo
    9. Software upgrades by conversion automation

      A semantic-based system is provided to upgrade software written in a high level language of the kind having a type system and being statically compiled in compilers which check types and usages at compile time. The system employs conversion declarations which are inserted into the source code of the software and executed by the compiler. These declarations comprise a list of substitutable parts, with each substitutable part having a list of properties, a set of semantic patterns to be matched using the substitutable parts, and a result pattern showing what will be substituted for each matching portion of source code.
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    10. Inferring semantic relations

      The present invention provides a facility for determining, for a semantic relation that does not occur in a lexical knowledge base, whether this semantic relation should be inferred despite its absence from the lexical knowledge base. This semantic relation to be inferred is preferably made up of a first word, a second word, and a relation type relating the meanings of the first and second words. In a preferred embodiment, the facility identifies a salient semantic relation having the relation type of the semantic relation to be inferred and relating the first word to an intermediate word other than the ...
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      Mentions: Inventiona
    11. Automatically recognizing the discourse structure of a body of text

      The present invention is directed to recognizing a discourse structure of a body of text. In a preferred embodiment, a discourse structure recognition facility utilizes syntactic information associated with the body of text to generate a discourse structure tree that characterizes the discourse structure of the body of text. The facility first identifies in the body of text a number of clauses. The facility then determines, for each distinct pair of clauses, which of a number of possible discourse relations should be hypothesized between the pair of clauses, based on the syntactic structure and semantic of the body of text ...
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    12. Determining similarity between words

      The present invention provides a facility for determining similarity between two input words utilizing the frequencies with which path patterns occurring between the words occur between words known to be synonyms. A preferred embodiment of the facility utilizes a training phase and a similarity determination phase. In the training phase, the facility first identifies, for a number of pairs of synonyms, the most salient semantic relation paths between each pair of synonyms. The facility then extracts from these semantic relation paths their path patterns, which each comprise a series of directional relation types. The number of times that each path ...
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      Mentions: Inventiona
    13. Identifying salient semantic relation paths between two words

      The present invention identifies salient semantic relation paths between two words using a knowledge base. For a group of semantic relations occurring in the knowledge base, the facility models with a mathematical function the relation between a frequency of occurrence of unique semantic relations and the number of unique semantic relations that occur at that frequency. This mathematical function has a vertex frequency identifying a transition point in the mathematical function. The facility then determines the level of salience of unique semantic relations of the group such that the level of salience of unique semantic relations increases with the frequency ...
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      Mentions: Inventiona
    14. Statistical natural language understanding using hidden clumpings

      The invention proposes using statistical methods to do natural language understanding. The key notion is that there are "strings" of words in the natural language, that correspond to a single semantic concept. One can then define an alignment between an entire semantic meaning (consisting of a set of semantic concepts), and the English. This is modeled using P(E,A.vertline.S). One can model p(S) separately. This allows each parameter to be modeled using many different statistical models.
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    15. Method and system for computing semantic logical forms from syntax trees

      Methods and computer systems for semantically analyzing natural language sentences. The natural language processing subsystems for morphological and syntactic analysis transform an input sentence into a syntax parse tree. Semantic analysis applies three sets of semantic rules to create a skeletal logical form graph from a syntax parse tree. Semantic analysis then applies two additional sets of semantic rules to provide semantically meaningful labels for the links of the logical form graph, to create additional logical form graph nodes for missing elements, and to unify redundant elements. The final logical form graph represents the complete semantic analysis of an input ...
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    16. Method to quantify abstraction within semantic networks

      A computer implemented conversational method to parse meaning from input sequences of symbols, using a large dictionary stored in a semantic network, where thousands of dictionary entries for symbols are stored as nodes connected by inheritance links. Input symbols are matched to dictionary entries, with priority given to entries which cover a range of concreteness similar to the range covered by the dictionary. Ranges of concreteness which are missing are identified and reported back to the user. Concreteness of each entry is quantified from topology of inheritance links; quantification is done automatically when defining meanings by inheritance. As network topology ...
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    17. Input device, inputting method, information processing system, and input information managing method

      An input device which includes plural inputting units, each accepting external information, including a unit for recognizing an input time of input information accepted via each of the plural inputting means; a unit for dividing or merging the input information into a predetermined primitive analysis unit, to obtain a recognition result; a unit for estimating the input time of a unit recognition result, by using an estimating method predetermined for each of the inputting units; and a unit for collecting some of the recognition results whose estimated input times are close to one another, and outputting the collected information as ...
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    18. Method and system for automatically identifying morphological information from a machine-readable dictionary

      A method and system for determining the derivational relatedness of a derived word and a base word. In a preferred embodiment, the system includes a machine-readable dictionary containing entries for head words and morphemes. Each entry contains definitional information and semantic relations. Each semantic relation specifies a relation between the head word with a word used in its definition. Semantic relations may contain nested semantic relations to specify relations between words in the definition. The system compares the semantic relations of the derived word to the semantic relations of a morpheme, which is putatively combined with the base word when ...
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    19. Multiple score language processing system

      A language processing system includes a mechanism for measuring the syntax trees of sentences of material to be translated and a mechanism for truncating syntax trees in response to the measuring mechanism. In a particular embodiment, a Score Function is provided for disambiguating or truncating ambiguities on the basis of composite scores, generated at different stages of the processing.
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    20. Building and updating of co-occurrence dictionary and analyzing of co-occurrence and meaning

      A co-occurrence dictionary is built through a process for calculating three kinds of co-occurrence information and a real number vector corresponding to each category. The co-occurrence dictionary is updated through a process for selecting the opposite phrase of the co-occurrence for the additional co-occurrence information and a process for calculating a real number vector corresponding to an additional word on the basis of the additional co-occurrence information. A co-occurrence analysis is effected through a process for calculating in real number the degree of the co-occurrence on the basis of the real number vectors corresponding to two categories to be checked ...
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      Mentions: Japan
    21. Natural language processing system and method for parsing a plurality of input symbol sequences into syntactically or pragmatically correct word messages

      A Natural Language Processing System utilizes a symbol parsing layer in combination with an intelligent word parsing layer to produce a syntactically or pragmatically correct output sentence or other word message. Initially, a plurality of polysemic symbol sequences are input through a keyboard segmented into a plurality of semantic, syntactic, or pragmatic segments including agent, action and patient segments, for example. One polysemic symbol sequence, including a plurality of polysemic symbols, is input from each of the three segments of the keyboard. A symbol parsing device, in a symbol parsing layer, then parses each of the plurality of symbols in ...
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    22. Database retrieval system having a natural language interface

      A database retrieval system having a natural language interface is provided. A database developer creates a knowledge base containing a structural description and semantic description of an application database from which data is to be retrieved. A database independent, canonical internal meaning representation of a natural language query is produced. An expert system accesses structural and semantic description information in the knowledge base and, in accordance with predefined rules, identifies database elements from said information that are necessary to satisfy the query represented by the internal meaning representation. A database query is generated among the database elements, enabling the retrieval ...
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    23. Computer method for identifying predicate-argument structures in natural language text

      A computer method is disclosed for determining predicate-argument structures in input prose sentences of English. The input sentence, in the form of a string of words separated by blanks, is first analyzed (parsed) by a rule component that has access only to morphological and syntactic information about the words. The output of this rule component, in the form of a data structure consisting of attribute-value pairs, is then processed by the argument structure component, which consists of a set of partially ordered procedures that incorporate further linguistic knowledge. The output of these procedures is the same attribute-value structure, now enhanced ...
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    24. Information retrieval system with means for analyzing undefined words in a natural language inquiry

      An information retrieval system is adapted to carry out information retrieval by entering an inquiry sentence in natural language, executing semantic analysis of the natural language inquiry sentence by a semantic analysis unit, and producing a retrieval condition from a result of the semantic analysis. The information retrieval system is provided in its semantic analysis unit with an undefined word processing unit which classifies an undefined word in the inquiry sentence in accordance with a process of producing a retrieval condition from the semantic analysis of other words contained in the inquiry sentence, the undefined word being defined as a ...
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      Mentions: Yokohama Hitachi
    4033-4058 of 4058 « 1 2 ... 166 167 168 169
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